Glossary

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The following table provides brief descriptions of key concepts and terms, together with a number of translations. Expanded explanations of main terms can be found in pages linked in the "TERM" column.

Glossary of key terms and concepts
TERM Short description German Portuguese (Brasil) Spanish French Chinese, simpl. / 中文, 简体 (Pinyin) Japanese Arabic/ العربية Greek Italian
Cynefin® - Place of multiple belongings Sense-making framework at the core of Naturalising sense-making and Anthro-complexity Ort multipler Zugehörigkeiten Lugar de múltiplos pertencimentos Lugar de múltiples pertenencias Lieu d'appartenances multiples المُنتمَى Luogo delle molteplici appartenenze
Abduction Forming a conclusion from pieces of partial information erkenntnistheoretische Entführung[1] Abdução Abducción Abduction الاستنباط Abduzione
Abstraction Cognitive process of isolating certain aspects of a given phenomenon or object so as to relate it to other such phenomena or objects showing the same common aspects Abstraktion Abstração Abstracción Abstraction التجريد Astrazione
Act Perform an action that changes (part of) a given system agieren / handeln (Verb) Agir Actuar Agir اِفْعَل Agire
Affordance What the environment offers the individual [2] Erschwinglichkeit Preço Asequibilidad Affordance القُدْرة Possibilità
Analyze Describe a system in terms of a set of parts and the causal relationships between them analysieren Analisar Analizar Analyser 分析 (fēnxī) حلِّل Analizzare
Anecdote Short account of a memorable event Anekdote Anedota Anécdota Anecdote 趣事 (qùshì) طُرفة Aneddoto
Anthro-complexity The type of complexity that is characteristic of human systems, arising from their having identities, and being intelligent and intentional Anthro- / humane Komplexität Antro-complexidade Antro-complejidad Anthro-complexité التعقيد الإنساني Antro-complessità
Aporetic Being in the epistemological state of not having made sense of a given context, while being aware of such ignorance and having an intentional attitude towards overcoming it (also see[3]). Also, the liminal portion of the "confused" domain in the Cynefin® framework "zum Zweifel neigend", zu Zweifeln geneigt Aporético Aporético Aporétique 懐疑 معضلة Aporetico
Archetype A typical example of a certain kind of person, usually representing a role, or thing, in a narrative Arquétipo Arquetipo Archétype 原型 (yuánxíng) الطراز الأولي Archetipo
Artifact "Anything wo/man-made including things like spreadsheets as well as more conventional tools"[4] Artefato Artefacto Artefact ملموس Artefatto
Assemblage theory Refers to a theory (Agencement, Deleuze) asserting that, within a body, the relationships of component parts are not stable and fixed; rather, they can be displaced and replaced within and among other bodies, thus approaching systems through relations of exteriority[5] Sammlung, Versammlung Agenciamento[6] Ensamblaje Agencement نظرية التلاقي Assemblaggio
Assemblage Coherent, ordered collection of methods and related concepts Coletanea Colección تلاقيات Raccolta
Attitude Propensity towards a certain behavior Einstellung, Haltung Atitude Actitud Attitude موقف Propensione
Attractor A point (or a stable oscillation) towards which a system tends to evolve Attraktor Atractor Atractor Attracteur الجاذب Attrattore
Bureaucracy The system of formal rules in an organization Bürokratie Burocracia Burocracia Bureaucratie 官僚 (guānliáo) البيروقراطية Burocrazia
Catalyst Anything that lowers the energy of change Katalysator Catalisador Catalizador Catalyseur حفّاز Catalizzatore
Categorize Assign categories to things, according to a given taxonomy kategorisieren Categorizar Categorizar Catégoriser صنِّف Categorizzare
Causality Cause-effect deterministic relationship between two phenomena or events, implying that one necessarily follows the other (not to be confused with Correlation) Kausalität Causalidade Causalidad Causalité السببية Causalità
Change A stable modification of a system Veränderung Mudança Cambio Changement تغيُّر Cambiamento
Chaotic Of a system in which no causal relationships between parts are knowable. Also of one of the Cynefin® framework domains chaotisch (Adjektiv) Caótico Caótico Chaotique 混沌 فوضوي Caotico
Clear Of a system in which causal relationships between parts are easily recognizable. Also of one of the Cynefin® framework domains klar (Adjektiv) Claro Claro Clair 明白 (míngbai) واضح Chiaro
Coherent In logical or physical accordance with the context. Especially used in sense-making to characterize actions consistent with an identified decision domain and, in complexity, with the dispositional landscape of a system stimming / kohärent Coerente Coherente Cohérent متسق Coerente
Complex Of a system in which causal relationships between parts are not linear and not knowable, except, in some cases, retrospectively. Also of one of the Cynefin® framework domains komplex (Adjektiv) Complexo Complejo Complexe 複合 معقد Complesso
Complex adaptive system (see Complex) komplex adaptive Systeme Sistema complexo adaptativo Sistema adaptivo complejo Système complexe adaptatif الأنظمة المتكيفة المعقدة Sistema complesso adattivo
Complicated Of a system in which causal relationships between parts are linear and knowable in advance, through analysis or expert advice. Also of one of the Cynefin® framework (sub)domains kompliziert (Adjektiv) Complicado Complicado Compliqué 煩雑 مُتشابِك Complicato
Concept An idea or principle that is connected with something[7] Conceito Concepto Concept مفهوم Concetto
Conflict A situation in which individuals or groups are involved in serious disagreement, argument, or even violence against each other Conflito Conflicto Conflit صراع Conflitto
Confused Of a state of not knowing the type of decision domain being faced, while not necessarily being aware of that. Also of one of the Cynefin® framework domains konfus / verwirrt (Adjektiv) Confuso Confuso Confus 混乱 مضطرب Confuso
Constraint Anything limiting the space of future possibilities or favoring its evolution in a certain direction (Rahmen-)Bedingung / Einschränkung Restrição Restricción Contrainte قيد Vincolo
Constructor theory a proposal for a new mode of explanation in fundamental physics[8] Teoria do construtor Teoría del constructor نظرية البنّاء Teoria del constructor
Correlation Joint statistical recurrence of two phenomena or events (not to be confused with Causation) Correlação Correlación Corrélation 相关 (xiāngguān) ارتباط Correlazione
Coupled Of two parts in a system being interrelated in a way that an action on one part causes consequential effects on the other gekoppelt (Adjektiv) Acoplado Acoplado Couplé مقرون Accoppiato
Creed Simple way of defining and remembering things that all know, or merely likely believe, in such a way that they can be understood over a range of intellectual abilities and knowledge Überzeugung Credo Credo Credo مُعْتَقَدٌ Credo
Crew A coherent set of interacting roles with the purpose of collectively performing one or more codified jobs Besatzung Tripulação Tripulación Équipage طاقم Equipaggio
Culture The set of beliefs, common values, and expected behaviors associated with identities and roles in the context of groups at a given scale Kultur Cultura Cultura Culture 文化 (wénhuà) ثقافة Cultura
Decision A choice or judgement with consequential effects on the context and on its evolution path Entscheidung Decisão Decisión Décision 决定 (juédìng) قرار Decisione
Decomposition The division of something into smaller parts, at a certain level of granularity, in a not necessarily reversible manner. In association with recombination (see), it constitutes a way of scaling in complexity Zerlegung Decomposição Descomposición Décomposition 分解 (fēnjiě) تَحَلُّل Scomposizione
Decoupled The opposite of Coupled (see) entkoppelt (Adjektiv) Desacoplado Desacoplado Découplé مفصول Disaccoppiato
Deduction Drawing conclusions about particulars from given general premises Ableitung Dedução Deducción Déduction الاستنتاج Deduzione
Descriptive self-awareness Leadership-related ability of being aware of how other people would describe us in context[9] beschreibendes Selbstbewustsein Autoconsciência descritiva Conciencia descriptiva Conscience de soi descriptive الوعي الذاتي التوصيفي Autoconsapevolezza descrittiva
Discursive approach Methodological approach for introducing a topic by starting with a narrative metaphorically linked to one or more key points of the topic itself Abordagem discursiva Abordaje discursivo Approche discursive النهج الاستطرادي Approccio discorsivo
Disintermediation Direct availability of self-interpreted narratives to decision-makers Abbau einer Mittlerrolle[10] Desintermediação Desintermediación Désintermédiation اللاوساطة Disintermediazione
Disordered Previous term for "Confused" (now deprecated in that sense, see Confused) Desordenado Desordenado Désordonné مُشَوَّش Disordinato
Disposition Propensity of a system to move to an adjacent possible in a certain direction Disposition Disposição Disposición Tendance نزعة\النزوع Disposizione
Dissent The act of disagreeing with someone or something Dissens / Meinungsverschiedenheit Dissensão Disentimiento Dissension اِنْشِقاقُ Dissenso
Diversity Heterogeneity in a group of people, typically by culture, experience, gender, etc. Diversität Diversidade Diversidad Diversité تنوّع Varietà
Domain One of the five ontological parts and epistemological perspectives that form the Cynefin® framework Domäne Domínio Dominio Domaine نِطاق Dominio
Emergence Appearance of something, typically a property, as a result of the interactions of parts in a system, in a way that is not predictable starting from the analysis of those parts Entstehung / Auftauchen / Sichtbarwerden Emergente Emergente Émergence انبثاق Emersione
Enabling Favoring the evolution of a system in a certain, usually desired, direction, through the lowering of an energy gradient ermöglichend (Adjektiv) Habilitador Habilitante Habilitant تمكين Abilitante
Energy A measure of the effort needed to change the state of a system Energie Energia Energía Énergie طاقة Energia
Entanglement A property of a system in which the parts are deeply interconnected, in a way that is not easily knowable in advance, and consequently actions are likely to have unintended consequences Emaranhamento Entrelazamiento Enchevêtrement الشائكة Inestricabilità
Epigenetics Refers to the heritable changes in gene expression or phenotype that don't involve changes in the DNA sequence Epigenética Epigenética Épigénétique 表觀遺傳學 (biǎoguān yíchuán xué) عِلْمُ التَّخَلُّق Epigenetica
Epistemology Branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge Epistemologie, Erkenntnistheorie Epistemologia Epistemología Épistémologie ابستيمولوجيا Epistemologia
Evolution A process of change in time and in context, that can be based on both adaptation and exaptation. Originally coming from Biology, it can be referred by analogy to organizations within business and non-business ecosystems Evolution Evolução Evolución Évolution 进化 (jìnhuà) التطور Evoluzione
Exaptation The taking of an idea, concept, tool, method, framework, etc., intended to address one thing, and using it to address a different thing, often in another domain. Exaptation / Zweckentfremdung[11] Exhaptação Exaptación Exaptation تكيّف مسبق Preadattamento, Exattamento
Experience A perspective on knowledge that takes into account the duration of exposure to a certain context or practice. One of the perspectives forming the ASHEN framework Erfahrung Experiência Experiencia Expérience 经验 (jīngyàn) الخبرة Esperienza
Expert Someone who sees a problem as relatively clearer than others in the clear-complicated spectrum, and who can provide a solution to it, within a specialized domain of competence Experte Especialista Experto Expert 专家 (zhuānjiā) الخبير Esperto
Fixed Of something (typically a constraint) that cannot be easily modified by acting on it fest / starr (Adjektiv) Fixo Fijo Fixe مُثَبَت Fisso
Flexuous Winding from side to side; sinuous[12] Biegsam Flexuoso Flexuoso Flexueux مُتَمَعِّج Flessuoso
Fluffy bunnies Idiom coined by David Snowden. It refers to new age platitudes and idealistic leadership models. The term originated in contrast to techno-fetishists. Plüschhasen Coelhos lanugentos Tonterías Bisounours أرانب منفوشة Fuffa
Fractal Self-similar at different scales (and levels of granularity) Fraktal Fractal Fractal Fractal 碎形 (suìxíng) كسيرة Frattale
Framework Provides a way, or better ways, of looking at the world or an aspect of the world (Ordnungs-)Rahmen / Bezugssystem Arcabouço Marco de referencia Framework / Cadre conceptuel 框架 (kuàngjià) إطار عمل Framework
Governing Preventing the evolution of a system in a certain, usually undesired, direction, through the increase of an energy gradient regierend / leitend / steuernd (Adjektiv) Governante Gobernante Gouvernant الحاكم Di governo
Granularity The - finer or coarser - level at which an object or a system can be, naturally or artificially, materially or conceptually, divided into parts Granularität Granularidad Granularité حُبَيْبِيَّة Granularità
Habit A usual behavior. Something done often and generally without thinking Gewohnheit Hábito Hábito Habitude عادة\عادات Abitudine
Hermeneutics The interpretation of written texts, the study of their meaning, and the art and technique of finding it Hermenêutica Hermenéutica Herméneutique 诠释学 (quánshìxué) علم التأويل Ermeneutica
Heuristics Rule of thumb used to speed up decision-making, the (non) application of which can be easily verified Heuristik Heurística Heurística Heuristique 启发法 (qǐfāfǎ) إرشاديات\إرشادي Euristica
Hierarchy A way of classifying and connecting the elements of a set in an ordered number of levels so that any give element is connected to one other in the upper level, except one, which is in the top level. Commonly used to characterize an organization (set) in which the positions (elements) are hierarchically structured Hierarchie Hierarquia Jerarquía Hiérarchie رُتَبْ Gerarchia
Identity The sense of self as a non-exclusive emergent property of a role. Usually referred to individuals within a community. By extension, it can be referred to organizations Identität Identidade Identidad Identité 身份 (shēnfèn) هُوِية Identità
Inattentional blindness Failure to perceive something in plain sight when it is unexpected, non attributable to a vision or otherwise sensorial deficit Atenção seletiva Ceguera por falta de atención Cécité d'inattention عمى عدم الانتباه Attenzione selettiva
Induction Inferring general conclusions from particular facts Indução Inducción Induction الاستقراء Induzione
Innovation The creation of novel ways of producing value Innovation Inovação Innovación Innovation 创新 (chuàngxīn) الإبتكار Innovazione
Interpretation The descriptive characterization of a narrative along a set of given dimensions Interpretation Interpretação Interpretación Interprétation التأويل Interpretazione
Interview A technique for eliciting information based on asking questions and recording the answers Interview Entrevista Entrevista Entretien مقابلة Intervista
Journal A systematic record of narratives in time Tagebuch Diário Diario Journal صحيفة Diario
Knowledge The set of cognitive pre-conditions for decision-making Wissen Conhecimento Conocimiento Connaissance 知识 (zhīshi) معرفة Conoscenza
Knowledge disclosure point, KDP (The account of) an event - decision, judgement, problem resolution, learning event - that sets a meaningful context for knowledge elicitation. Momento revelador de conhecimento Momento rivelatore di conoscenza
Learning Process of acquiring new knowledge Lernen, Lehre Aprendizagem Aprendizaje Apprentissage التعلم Apprendimento
Lesson-learned Knowledge acquired through past (or fictional) experience Lição aprendida Lección aprendida Leçon tirée / Retour d'expérience Insegnamento
Liminal Temporary transitional state between two identities (see). Also metaphorically used to indicate the phase transition (see) state between any two of the primary Cynefin® domains Grenzbereich, Schwellenbereich Liminal Liminal Liminal 識閾(リミナル) حدي Liminale
Manifesto Ideological statement of how things should be, or more frequently how they should not be Manifest Manifesto Manifiesto Manifeste بيان Manifesto
Map A simplified, conceptualized, usually graphical representation of reality that privileges certain aspects of it based on a given more or less generic purpose Karte Mapa Map Carte 地图 (dìtú) خارطة Mappa
Metaphor A way of describing (a quality of) something by analogy with something else, based on a higher level of abstraction Metapher Metáfora Metáfora Métaphore Metafora
Method Defined process or processes which if followed produce defined results Methode Método Método Méthode منهج Metodo
Model A representation of reality, or more appropriately of some aspect of the world, allowing for simulation or exploration without encountering the irreversibility of reality Modell Modelo Modelo Modèle نموذج Modello
Natural Language Processing (NLP) A technology based on the algorithmic processing of natural language, including for example information extraction from language data in written and spoken forms, and allowing novel forms of human-machine interactions Processamento da linguagem natural Procesamiento del lenguaje natural Traitement automatique des langues (TAL) Elaborazione del linguaggio naturale
Network A set of interconnected parts Netzwerk Rede Red Réseau 网络 (wǎngluò) شبكة Rete
Novel Different from anything known or existing before, possibly resulting from exaptation neu / neuartig (Adjektiv) Inédito Inédito Novateur بِدعَة Inedito
Numinous Having a strong religious or spiritual quality making you feel that a superior entity or a god is present Numinoso Numinoso Numineux Numinoso
Obvious (see Clear) offensichtlich - siehe: klar Óbvio (veja Claro) Obvio (ver Claro) Évident - voir Clair جلي Ovvio - vedi Chiaro
Ontology The branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality Ontologie, Seinslehre Ontologia Ontología Ontologie الأنطولوجيا Ontologia
Ordered Clear or complicated (see). Of a system in which causal relationships between parts are linear and knowable in advance, whether because obvious, or through analysis, or through expert advice. Also of one of the Cynefin® framework domains geordnet Ordenado Ordenado Ordonné المُرَتَّب Ordinato
Parable Short story teaching some kind of moral or spiritual lesson Parabel Parábola Parábola Parabole 讽喻 (fěngyù) مَوْعِظة Parabola
Path dependence The state in which the propensity of something to change in a certain direction or another depends in part or in full on the history of its previous states Wegabhängigkeit Dependência da trajetória Dependencia del camino Dépendance au sentier/Dépendance au chemin emprunté 路径依赖 (lùjìng yīlài) Dipendenza dal percorso
Phase transition The physical process of transition between basic states of the matter, involving energy incorporation or freeing. By analogy, the transition between any two of the Cynefin® primary domains Phasenübergang Transição de fase Fase de transición Transition de phase Transizione di fase
Phenomenology The philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness Phänomenologie Fenomenologia Fenomenología Phénoménologie ظاهراتية Fenomenologia
Power Ability to control Macht Poder Poder Pouvoir 力量 (lìliang) القوة Potere
Practice The way a problem or a need is approached, according to the decision domain to which it belongs. DIfferent practices correspond to different C Prática Práctica Pratique 实践 (shíjiàn) طريقة Übung, Praxis Pratica
Principle A methodological guideline usually valid in a given context Prinzip Princípio Principio Principe قاعدة Principio
Probe An action put in place to investigate the dispositional state of a system through the subsequent observation of a response prüfen / untersuchen Sondar Sondear Sonder 探索 (tànsuǒ) إسبر Indagare
Process An ordered sequence or network of actions and decisions performed in time and producing an outcome Prozess Processo Proceso Processus 过程 (guòchéng) Processo
Propensity (see Disposition) Neigung Propensão Propensión Propension نزوع Propensione
Recombination The joining or mixing into a new system of parts coming from the prior decomposition (see) of one or more other systems. In association with decomposition (see), it constitutes a way of scaling in complexity Rekombination Recombinação Recombinación Recombinaison 重组 (chóngzǔ) Ricombinazione
Resilience Ability to survive with continuity of identity over time[13] Resilienz Resiliência Resiliencia Résilience 弹性能 (tánxìngnéng) لَدَانَة Resilienza
Respond Act in a system coherently with its causal or dispositional state antworten / reagieren Responder Responder Répondre اِستَجِب Rispondere (Reagire)
Ritual A sequence of actions consciously or unconsciously performed by an individual in the incorporation of a new role, in the separation from a former role, or in the transition between roles, that that lowers the energy and speeds up identity transition Ritual Ritual Ritual Rituel طَقْس Rituale
Role A recognizable function of an individual in an organization, group, or community, in a generic or specific context Rolle Papel Rol Rôle دَوْر Ruolo
Scaffold A structured set of constraints allowing or favoring the system to (tend to) take a certain shape Gerüst Andaime Andamio Échafaudage السِّقالةُ Impalcatura
Scale Change the size (by an order of magnitude) skalieren Escala Escala Échelle Scalare
Semiotics The study of sign processes (semiosis) Semiotik Semiótica Semiótica Sémiotique Semiotica
Sense Become aware wahrnehmen (Verb) / Sinn (Nomen) Sentir Sentir Sentir أَدْرِك Sentire (Osservare)
Sense-making Making sense of the world so as to be able to take act in it Sinn gebend / Sinn stiftend Sense-making Dar un sentido Sense-Making استدرك Dare un senso
Sensor Something (someone) that helps detecting a signal Sensor Sensor Sensor Capteur 传感器 (chuángǎnqì) حَسّاس Sensore
Serendipity The occurrence of unintended and unexpected consequences of an action Serendipidade[14] Serendipia[15] Heureux hasard / Sérendipité سرنديبية Serendipità
Side-casting Casting around, to see what directions of travel are coherent with the current dispositional landscape[16] Guardarsi intorno
Simple (see Clear) einfach - siehe: klar Simples (veja Claro) Simple - ver Claro Simple - voir Clair بسيط - راجع واضح Semplice - vedi Chiaro
Skill A competence that can be taught and measured in terms of time of execution and quality of output Fertigkeit Habilidade Habilidad Compétence مهارة Abilità
Strange attractor A behavioral phenomenon where, although individual actions never repeat, they follow a certain recognizable recurrent pattern (term borrowed from mathematical physics, also see Assemblage theory and Trope) Atractor estranho Atractor extraño Attracteur étrange 奇异吸引子 (qíyì xīyǐnzi) جاذب غريب Attrattore strano
Talent The natural ability to learn or to perform a task with exceptionally lower effort or higher results Talent Talento Talento Talent موهبة Talento
Taxonomy A classification based on pre-determined categories Taxonomie, Klassifizierungsschema Taxonomia Taxonomía Taxonomie 分类 (fēnlèi) Tassonomia
Time A measure that allows to determine the order of events Zeit Tempo Tiempo Temps 时间 (shí jiān) زمن χρόνος (chrónos) Tempo
Trichotomy An element of description based on three aspects Trichotomie Tricotomia Tricotomía Trichotomie Tricotomia
Trio A group of three people working together Trio Trio Trío Trio ثلاثي Trio
Triple point The combination of temperature and pressure at which the three phases of a substance, solid, liquid, and gas, are equiprobable. Also metaphor for the confused domain in the Cynefin® framework Tripelpunkt Ponto triplo Punto triple Point triple Punto triplo
Trope Unescapable pattern of story bildlicher Ausdruck Tropo Tropo Tropo
Turning point A moment in history at which the evolutionary path of a system takes (is prevented from taking) a specific direction, typically as a result of a decision or of an external event Wendepunkt Ponto decisivo Punto decisivo Tournant / Point décisif نُقطة تَحَوُّل Punto di svolta
Typology A descriptive characterization of something, based on multiple perspectives Typologie Tipologia Tipología Typologie Tipologia
Vector A measure characterized by both intensity and direction Vektor Vetor Vector Vecteur مُتَّجِه Vettore
Weak signal Non-obvious, hard-to-detect signal with the potential of providing anticipatory insight schwaches Signal Sinal fraco Señal débil Signal faible Segnale debole
Workshop Setting aimed at favoring the open discussion of a topic or collective problem solving Workshop Oficina, Workshop Taller, Workshop Atelier ورشة عمل Laboratorio, Workshop
next term next short description in German in Portuguese in Spanish in French in Mandarin in Japanese in Arabic in Greek in Italian

References

  1. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abduktion
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affordance "Affordance" on Wikipedia (accessed April 2, 2021)
  3. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aporia "Aporia" on Wikipedia (accessed April 2, 2021)
  4. https://www.cognitive-edge.com/ashen-reused/ Dave Snowden, ASHEN Reused, Cognitive Edge Blog (December 23, 2020)
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assemblage_(philosophy) "Assemblage" on Wikipedia (accessed April 2, 2021)
  6. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/1551/155144607004.pdf RIOS CAVALCANTI, MARIA FERNANDA, ESTUDOS ORGANIZACIONAIS E FILOSOFIA: A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE DELEUZE, RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, vol. 56, núm. 2, marzo-abril, 2016, pp. 182-191, Fundação Getulio Vargas, São Paulo, Brasil, "A palavra agenciamento vem do francês agencement, que poderia também ser traduzida para o português como arranjo ou organização. Esse conceito teria duas facetas, um sentido de agência e a heterogeneidade dos elementos que o constituem"
  7. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructor_theory Constructor theory in Wikipedia
  9. https://www.cognitive-edge.com/stalin-or-lincoln/ Dave Snowden, Stalin or Lincoln?, Cognitive Edge blog (November 30, 2020)
  10. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disintermediatio
  11. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exaptation
  12. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/flexuous Flexuous in Wiktionary
  13. Managing complexity (and chaos) in times of crisis, A field guide for decision makers inspired by the Cynefin framework, European Commission and Cynefin Centre
  14. https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serendipidade
  15. https://dle.rae.es/serendipia
  16. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdDG_cliDB4&t=904s GFS 2020 - Dave Snowden - Merging complexity and cognitive science, FFWD - Futures Intelligence & Strategic Foresight (YouTube Video)